Human trafficking is a form of interpersonal violence that involves exploitation for the purposes of commercial sexual activities or labor or services, through the use control to force or compel victims to engage in those activities.
The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) defines “Severe Forms of Trafficking in Persons” as:
Commercial sex act induced by force, fraud or coercion, or in which person performing the act is under age 18. The term ‘‘commercial sex act’’ means any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any person. Exception to rule of control: When minors (under 18) are exploited in commercial sex, there is no need to show force, fraud or coercion
Debt bondage means a person is under the control of their debtor as a security for debt, if the value of those services as reasonably assessed is not applied toward the liquidation of the debt or the length and nature of those services are not respectively limited and defined.
Involuntary Servitude is a condition of servitude induced by any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause a person to believe that, if the person did not enter into or continue in such condition, that person or another person would suffer serious harm or physical restraint.
22 U.S.C. § 7102, Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act. (2000). Sec. 201–103, 106th U.S. Congress.
25 typologies of human trafficking in the United States
Each typology has a unique business model, trafficker & victim profile, recruitment strategies and control mechanisms that facilitate that particular type of trafficking.
Polaris. (2017). The typology of modern slavery: Defining sex and labor trafficking in the United States. https://polarisproject.org/typology